The A’s and D’s of pain management


Brown and Fromm in 1987 and Eimer and scene Freeman in 1998 set the factors that can changes the minds perception of pain.

Four A’s:

  • Avoidance
  • Alleviation
  • Alteration
  • Awareness

(Brown and Fromm 1987)

Six D’s:

  • Deep Relaxation
  • Decatastrophizing
  • Direction
  • Distraction
  • Distortion
  • Dissociation

(Eimer and Freeman 1998)

To find out more how we use these factors Soccer to help you manage your discomfort caused and by pain please contact us.

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